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Operator onboarding guide
This guide will run you through the steps required to become an Operator on the Accumulate Network.
Each operator runs a dual-mode deployment with a Directory Network Node (DNN) and Block Validator Network Node (BVNN). In Accumulate, Block Validator Networks (BVNs) contain validator nodes used to validate transactions. All transactions feed into the Directory Network (DN) containing validator nodes which anchor each BVN into the larger network.
The network must store all operator and validator node public keys to facilitate transaction validation and other operator functions. Therefore, each operator must supply a public key representing the operator plus every node's full public key.
When launching a node through AccMan, the node will initially be a Follower. After completing the Follower Node setup, please follow the steps in the Validator Node Setup guide to set up your Validator node.

Below are the following accounts an Operator will need to be aware of:

URL
Description
acc://dn.acme
ADI Account for the Directory Network
acc://dn.acme/operators
Operators Key Book
acc://dn.acme/operators/1
Operators Key Page within the Operators Key Book
acc://dn.acme/network
ADI Data Account that stores the Validator keys
acc://dn.acme/globals
ADI Data Account that defines the Operator Accept Threshold Ratio
acc://dn.acme/oracle
ADI Data Account that stores pricing data for the ACME-Credits conversion rate.
As shown in the Diagram above, the Operator Key Book is an Authority to the Networks, Data, and Global Data Accounts and all BVN ADIs and the accounts within them. The Operator Key Book, with the URL dn.acme/operators has one Key Page: Operator Key Page 1 with the URL dn.acme/operators/1. The Operator Key Page 1 store the Operators’ keys (Public Key hashes). The keys affiliated with the public key hashes must be used to sign any transaction that adds a data entry to one of the Data Accounts. Since there is no Key Page of a higher priority than Operator Key Page 1, these keys must also sign any transaction that adds a new key to Operator Key Page 1.
The Network Data Account dn.acme/network contains a list of Validator keys (public key hashes) used to validate transactions. The Globals Data Account dn.acme/globals defines and enforces the Operator Accept Threshold Ratio, i.e., the minimum number of signatures needed by the Operator Key Page to execute a transaction. The threshold ratio is 2/3 (rounded up). This threshold ratio is used when updating the list of Validators in dn.acme/network
The Oracle Data Account defines the price of ACME and how many credits a user should receive for that price.
  • To add a new operator key to dn.acme/operators/1we execute a multi-sig UpdateKeyPage transaction signed by dn.acme/operators.
  • To add a new Validator key to dn.acme/network we execute a multi-sig WriteData transaction signed by dn.acme/operators. Tendermint (the consensus engine of Accumulate) uses the Validator keys to approve or reject all transactions in Accumulate.
Command Line Interface
An Operator Key can be generated in the Command Line Interface
Syntax
./accumulate key generate [Key Name]
Command
./accumulate key generate operatorkey1
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
name : operatorkey1 lite account : acc://11d3217fda3c863c2e66936826987edb3a4467f540279689/ACME
public key : 1df37076ff875fc2a9c99a647622d33b1c194ff0d821c40b93fffac1743acca2
key type : ed25519
The Public Key in the Output will serve as the Operator Public Key

Operators

Operators decide who becomes a validator.
./accumulate operator
Manage operators
Usage: accumulate operator [command]
Available Commands: add (Add an operator), remove (Remove an operator), update-key, (Update an operator's key)
Add a Key to the Operator Key Page ./accumulate operator add
2/3 of the existing operators need to sign a transaction to add the operator key
Syntax
accumulate operator add dn [Existing Operator Key] [New Operator Key] [flags]
The first argument is a Public Key of an existing Operator. The second argument is the Public Key of the new Operator. DeFi Devs will execute the transaction below to add your Operator Key to the Operator Key Page. In the example below a key was generated called “operator key.” To generate a Key in the Command Line Interface the “./accumulate key generate [name of key]” command can be used.
Add the Operator key
Command
./accumulate operator add dn nodekey1 nodekey2
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : e2469b9b7ee8c554332c8fa862eacafe4ef2b4724fe27e4b5cd32779e168f077
Signature 0 Hash : c3a0e1a707817059c6a25d80e36866e1aec639f28e8bbd53b2a7340adc0d1a9f
Simple Hash : e34c51ddc4cbe4cdb1eecf397c0c6c622b78faa7a8e9b741f961dbebc7bd3ac6
Error code : ok
Result :
Querying the Operator Key Page to see if the Key was added:
./accumulate get dn.acme/operators/1
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Credit Balance : 0.00
Index Nonce Key Name Delegate Public Key Hash
0 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey1 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839
1 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey2
f22fbe9dcb68bbbafefb99896c1e0fa54f7c0a219b2194f96955f733cfddd966
As shown above, the Directory Network ADI and Block Validator Network ADIs do not require credits to perform transactions. Other than this specific use case, all actions in Accumulate require credits generated by burning ACME tokens.
To conform to the 2/3 threshold, the protocol will execute: Number of Keys in Key Page * Signature Threshold Ratio (2/3) = RoundUp(Number of Signatures Required) 2 *(2/3) = 1.3 -> Rounded Up to Nearest Whole Number if Number is a Decimal = 2 Signatures Required From this point going forward 2 out of 2 Operator signatures are required to execute a transaction.
Next, a third Key will be added using sign a Multi-Signature Transaction based on the 2 of 2 Threshold.
Either Operator within the Key Page can execute a transaction to add a third key, but both Operators must sign the transaction for the Key to be added. In this scenario, DeFiDevs has initiated the transaction.
./accumulate operator add dn nodekey nodekey3
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 28f0df5f19f4d60639b415b9f9ce287e15c26c0cdbebd6655caf9602d65dc274
Signature 0 Hash : bf3df0d3f6160613b689be4e024163264bf60d2aa9ae0daecb3f68948aa6aea6
Simple Hash : 44bd7361c22a616b893cf416784786d32fdac5cd550a5c6a67db690b29d6f118
Error code : ok
Result :
The second Operator needs to sign the Transaction Hash to fulfill the Multi-Signature transaction.
./accumulate tx sign Usage: accumulate tx sign [origin url] [n Signer Key Name]] [txid] Sign a pending transaction
The origin url is the Operator Key Page, which is being updated. The Signer Key refers to a party that needs to sign the multi-signature transaction. The transaction hash refers to the hash produced from the initial transaction.
./accumulate tx sign dn.acme/operators/1 nodekey2 28f0df5f19f4d60639b415b9f9ce287e15c26c0cdbebd6655caf9602d65dc274
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 28f0df5f19f4d60639b415b9f9ce287e15c26c0cdbebd6655caf9602d65dc274
Signature 0 Hash : e20d78e40c8a7070820329f850b164b9d89f539f9fd585dfc59a0ef8b0075396
Simple Hash : e32900e73df423b1f8d6247a1e13618f743cf071ec958220856fa941c6bc8836
Error code : ok
Result :
Querying the Operator Key Page to see if the Key was added:
./accumulate get dn.acme/operators/1
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Credit Balance : 0.00
Index Nonce Key Name Delegate Public Key Hash
0 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey1 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839
1 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey2
f22fbe9dcb68bbbafefb99896c1e0fa54f7c0a219b2194f96955f733cfddd966
2 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey3
0cd684e23ca541d13b03f977a9f3556f867e2a67ab868e710c66739520cdbcb4
To conform to the 2/3 threshold, the protocol will execute: Number of Keys in Key Page * Signature Threshold Ratio (2/3) = RoundUp(Number of Signatures Required) 3 *(2/3) = 2 -> Rounded Up to Nearest Whole Number if Number is a Decimal = 2 Signatures Required From this point going forward 2 out of 2 Operator signatures are required to execute a transaction.
Remove a Key from an Operator Key Page: To remove a Key from the Key Page 2 of the 3 Keys need to sign a transaction for it to be processed.
./accumulate operator remove dn nodekey1 nodekey3
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 30691a0ecdaad77455d65598194d4cf2be86143ca7029b57bf5665a14398e143
Signature 0 Hash : 050c9cdaf8501f86f15bfdc919e499157a8e6010da7399443bb1bcee9b03273b
Simple Hash : f194f98d033aaa0b69dd13b261a17a04574c4e05345199cc715a45d14b30a2bc
Error code : ok
Result :
One of the two remaining operators needs to sign the transaction hash:
./accumulate tx sign dn.acme/operators/1 nodekey2 30691a0ecdaad77455d65598194d4cf2be86143ca7029b57bf5665a14398e143
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 30691a0ecdaad77455d65598194d4cf2be86143ca7029b57bf5665a14398e143
Signature 0 Hash : b4cc9b55b11d35ae84e11fdc2563a3e5e1959b9505a6e75ad87a1ce68d2d378b
Simple Hash : b57701b421a14acc1a629a1e7bf26f421406e69a115c00a67d7062244fba77e9
Error code : ok
Result :
Querying the Operator Key Page to see if the Key was Removed:
./accumulate get dn.acme/operators/1
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Credit Balance : 0.00
Index Nonce Key Name Delegate Public Key Hash
0 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey1 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839
1 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey2
f22fbe9dcb68bbbafefb99896c1e0fa54f7c0a219b2194f96955f733cfddd966
Update the Key
Update your Key on the Operator Key Page: When you update your Key within a Key Page you do not have to conform to the signature threshold. The signature threshold is 1 of 1 for this transaction only; all other transactions will require the Key Page threshold. In the example below, DeFi Devs want to update their Key 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839 to UpdatedKey.
The signature threshold is 1 of 1 for this transaction; all other transactions will require the Key Page threshold. In the example below, DeFi Devs want to update someone else's key, which would require the 2 of 3 thresholds.
Syntax
./accumulate operator update-key
Usage: accumulate operator update-key dn [Signing Key] [old key name or path] [new key name or path] [flags]
Command
./accumulate operator update-key dn nodekey1 nodekey2 updatedkey
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 0a9d215fa33f98a1ffa9d64f2493e47f9aa3b4b5ca615fddd594fe82d1e77431
Signature 0 Hash : 9f5dea9f0dd7ad40fd7ac2921bf4d99efb52559a8af42e0a675b186bd83bfe48
Simple Hash : dc3679af7a7732506edc1ce2a7a6cc5067328e74c4d0d474ae8376265e84194a
Error code : ok
Result :
Sign Transaction Hash:
./accumulate tx sign dn.acme/operators/1 nodekey2 0a9d215fa33f98a1ffa9d64f2493e47f9aa3b4b5ca615fddd594fe82d1e77431
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 0a9d215fa33f98a1ffa9d64f2493e47f9aa3b4b5ca615fddd594fe82d1e77431
Signature 0 Hash : f16e6aac309da18a0f1e4cc2ed2275b046640a1ffc5bcd374206274cd2abb655
Simple Hash : f1e99d4670c870591f354264b4788c238a57ac1b9ba0bd468e08c69d27fb6877
Error code : ok
Result :
Query Operator Key Page:
./accumulate get dn.acme/operators/1
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Credit Balance : 0.00
Index Nonce 0 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST
Key Name nodekey1
Delegate Public Key Hash 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839 1 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST updatedkey
31f15c6bf79bf76cecbf59513c2bbaaca24281151a1038cf083e178b2e026cab

Validators

./accumulate validator
Manage validators
accumulate validator [command] Available Commands: add Add a validator remove Remove a validator update-key Update a validator's key
Adding a Validator Key is a separate Operation from adding an Operator Key. The Operator Key Book is an Authority to the Network Data Account that Lists the Validator Keys. This means that the Operators need to sign a transaction to add a Validator to the Validator Set. The DN operator Key Page has two Keys which means a Multi-Signature Transaction is required.
To modify a key to the directory network use dn. To modify a key in a block validator network use bvn[BVN#].
Command
./accumulate get dn.acme/operators/1
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Credit Balance : 0.00
Index Nonce Key Name Delegate Public Key Hash
1 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST nodekey1 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839 1 1969-12-31 19:00:00 -0500 EST updatedkey
31f15c6bf79bf76cecbf59513c2bbaaca24281151a1038cf083e178b2e026cab
Sign a Transaction with Operator Key to add a Validator Key to the Network Data Account
./accumulate validator add dn nodekey1 nodekey3
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : aaee722519006cbf8ae0d5f20c4415769a07c0ca6571f8a410166d9664ccff13
Signature 0 Hash : 3c149e78d963455f22ec0a9cd5c4083fe2138f36f17cda6daa218a528d8a3a1b
Simple Hash : c92918b687a6e3943ce27b68245736dcc0c03bfd2aaf80dead8f21a195417587
Error code : ok
Result : Account URL acc://dn.acme/network
Account ID 9084f525bdaf602638ac488a926b5258da904cc4f3afbf824ec8936424d5f421
Entry Hash 3bb9b4a7b3df97d2c4b0e54b639c9a42baaacac062846ccec20c5c24884eb1a6
Sign the Transaction Hash:
./accumulate tx sign dn.acme/network updatedkey
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
aaee722519006cbf8ae0d5f20c4415769a07c0ca6571f8a410166d9664ccff13 Transaction Hash : 33ee722519006cbf8ae0d5f20c4415769a07c0ca6571f8a410166d9664ccff51 Signature 0 Hash : 59149e78d963455f22ec0a9cd5c4083fe2138f36f17cda6daa218a528d8a3a21 Simple Hash : 622918b687a6e3943ce27b68245736dcc0c03bfd2aaf80dead8f21a195417566
Error code : ok Result : Account URL acc://dn.acme/network
A Get Command on the Network Data Account shows the Validator Keys:
./accumulate get dn.acme/network
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
(type): Url: acc://dn.acme/network Value: (type): Network Definition NetworkName: DevNet Version: 1 Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Partition Info ID: BVN1 Type: blockValidator 1 (elem): (type): Partition Info ID: Directory Type: directory Validators: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Info PublicKey: 32ccc129c90e2c5dc9889e500719fdd129ac80b8eb669a9ed59d579c9ae17db7 PublicKeyHash: 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839 Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Partition Info ID: Directory Active: true 1 (elem): (type): Validator Info PublicKey: 0cd684e23ca541d13b03f977a9f3556f867e2a67ab868e710c66739520cdbcb4 PublicKeyHash: 92c358f53581aa5066b7485b10d668d7c491c34608f6549bea43c4f3ee4a7d9f Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Partition Info ID: Directory Active: true 1 (elem): (type): Validator Partition Info ID: BVN1 Active: true
Remove a Validator Key
./accumulate validator remove nodekey1 nodekey3
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 35db1f2bed8d8d85b85d0197b2b71666b1741ba2ef0c953a6055a7643a1ab6af
Signature 0 Hash :158d5724e48346197e102108e32cd1663ce972cde3fd60d64d8ba579fb34a997
Simple Hash : f45d0547fdab733868f053b789ad227c39ccd36c59b4c199d12d8a64e3024e46
Error code : ok
Result : Account URL acc://dn.acme/network
Account ID 5514f525bdaf602638ac488a926b5258da904cc4f3afbf824ec8936424d5ff83
Entry Hash 145b4a7b3df97d2c4b0e54b639c9a42baaacac062846ccec20c5c24884eb1a6
Sign the Transaction Hash:
./accumulate tx sign dn.acme/network updatedkey
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
35db1f2bed8d8d85b85d0197b2b71666b1741ba2ef0c953a6055a7643a1ab6af Transaction Hash : 33ee722519006cbf8ae0d5f20c4415769a07c0ca6571f8a410166d9664ccff51 Signature 0 Hash : 59149e78d963455f22ec0a9cd5c4083fe2138f36f17cda6daa218a528d8a3a21 Simple Hash : 622918b687a6e3943ce27b68245736dcc0c03bfd2aaf80dead8f21a195417566 Error code : ok Result : Account URL acc://dn.acme/network
A Get Command on the Network Data Account shows the Validator Keys:
./accumulate get dn.acme/network
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
(type): Url: acc://dn.acme/network Value: (type): Network Definition NetworkName: DevNet Version: 1 Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Partition Info ID: BVN1 Type: blockValidator 1 (elem): (type): Partition Info ID: Directory Type: directory Validators: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Info PublicKey: 32ccc129c90e2c5dc9889e500719fdd129ac80b8eb669a9ed59d579c9ae17db7 PublicKeyHash: 1e0ffe0dc92cef77211b4d98256aea98fd87b9ea2b3657cdbe494bbea912d839 Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Partition Info ID: Directory Active: true
Update a Validator Key
There is a special procedure for updating a Validator Key.
  1. 1.
    Launch a New Node
  2. 2.
    Use the Key from the new Node in the Update-Key function
Syntax
./accumulate validator update-key Usage: accumulate validator update-key dn] [Signing Key] [old key name or path] [new key name or path] [flags]
Command
./accumulate validator update-key dn nodekey1 node1 updatedkey
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 18d0321582896b74c282db30b8c4c5839a7652c9ddf820cb41a51874ba076705
Signature 0 Hash : 7b31a4bc7d6c0b5d86ef7e966b03f6106fc98a43542cd7baf80cdf78c60ae462
Simple Hash : 6b50d6eabef9658b865a7334b3e5e8acbdc21b0382dcbe0a0e7c437ca8f964ec
Error code : ok
Result :
Sign Transaction Hash:
./accumulate tx sign dn.acme/operators/1 nodekey1 18d0321582896b74c282db30b8c4c5839a7652c9ddf820cb41a51874ba076705
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Transaction Hash : 18d0321582896b74c282db30b8c4c5839a7652c9ddf820cb41a51874ba076705
Signature 0 Hash : 194c1a86cbdc75e764cefb8438be4a6fbee06d2fcff56ced3ebbcc5a96542a91
Simple Hash : bd9f02e83731ddb17f725394f0328d6ce4956132bd328b1b77b25c5d06fb2411
Error code : ok
Result :
A Get Command on the Network Data Account shows the Validator Keys:
./accumulate get dn.acme/network
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
(type): Url: acc://dn.acme/network Value: (type): Network Definition NetworkName: DevNet Version: 1 Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Partition Info ID: BVN1 Type: blockValidator 1 (elem): (type): Partition Info ID: Directory Type: directory Validators: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Info PublicKey: 31f15c6bf79bf76cecbf59513c2bbaaca24281151a1038cf083e178b2e026cab PublicKeyHash: ee8e2e5da29781aa619590a3ef98c33f2f688f7f5b96d0931cdc15ed09cc99a6 Partitions: 0 (elem): (type): Validator Partition Info ID: Directory Active: true
Changing the Oracle Value Transaction in Accumulate Require Credits. Certain actions require a different amount of Credits See Fee Schedule: https://docs.accumulatenetwork.io/accumulate/getting-started/fees
1 Credit always equals $0.01 If the value of ACME increases or decreases the Oracle needs to change to maintain the ratio of 1 credit equaling $0.01.
Querying the Oracle: ./accumulate oracle USD per ACME : $0.0500 Credits per ACME : 5.00
As shown, if the price of ACME is $0.0500 then the Credits per ACME is 5.00 to retain 1 credit equaling $0.01 (5/$0.0500). If the price of ACME increases to $0.0600 the credits per ACME would be 6.00.
Signing a Transaction to change the Oracle Value:
./accumulate data write dn.acme/oracle updatedkey 01d804 --sign-with nodekey1 --write-state
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
Entry Hash :471002594e7834d19879036cd174bead906cbaafc3164e30b4ed411c91b8dfbd
Transaction Hash : 915e1992b783342f15dedb8a9e3c6457f007b0cfd4a1278010f8af9126736b39
Signature 0 Hash : 372cd19c39e5e0ac8deb5727520d1e8ea5936c4a65ace2683b443364142bbcbd
Signature 1 Hash : 8e0b03a5409ce5495e3c2e793481dbdb6ea3591b049b23282854076649337b00
Simple Hash : 8f8a2c9eb8f55d4bdc71c55b8c53bdc102ce3bccdae0b8b3b9f0a41efb14b4d3
Error code : ok
Result : Account URL acc://dn.acme/oracle
Account ID 0fbddd4a41b9996ea1907911a5b3e0b1354e7c95107613b9207d516efb245553
Entry Hash 471002594e7834d19879036cd174bead906cbaafc3164e30b4ed411c91b8dfbd
Get an Oracle
./accumulate get dn.acme/oracle
The above command will return an output similar to the following:
(type): Url: acc://dn.acme/oracle Value:
(type): Acme Oracle Price: 600
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Operators
Validators